PC-UNIXに関する記事など

CPAN を使い Perl モジュールをインストールする

※追記2010-03-28

この記事は何年も前に書いたものです。現在はまったく参考になりません。今からCPANモジュールをインストールしようとしている方はmiyagawaさん作 App::cpanminus を使うと幸せになれます。

cpanmの記事はココで書いてます。参考になれば・・

CPAN って何?

一言で言えば perl module をインストールするためのモジュールなのです。 CPAN.pm を使うと perl モジュールのインストールが驚くほど簡単になります。ただし初めて CPAN を使用する場合には以下の要領で設定が必要な場合があります。#ほとんどの部分は [Enter] を押すだけなんですが...

CPAN の初期設定

※全ての作業は root で実行

[root@celeron2 /root]# perl -MCPAN -e shell

/usr/lib/perl5/5.6.1/CPAN/Config.pm initialized.


CPAN is the world-wide archive of perl resources. It consists of about
100 sites that all replicate the same contents all around the globe.
Many countries have at least one CPAN site already. The resources
found on CPAN are easily accessible with the CPAN.pm module. If you
want to use CPAN.pm, you have to configure it properly.

If you do not want to enter a dialog now, you can answer 'no' to this
question and I'll try to autoconfigure. (Note: you can revisit this
dialog anytime later by typing 'o conf init' at the cpan prompt.)

Are you ready for manual configuration? [yes]


The following questions are intended to help you with the
configuration. The CPAN module needs a directory of its own to cache
important index files and maybe keep a temporary mirror of CPAN files.
This may be a site-wide directory or a personal directory.



First of all, I'd like to create this directory. Where?

CPAN build and cache directory? [/root/.cpan]




If you want, I can keep the source files after a build in the cpan
home directory. If you choose so then future builds will take the
files from there. If you don't want to keep them, answer 0 to the
next question.



How big should the disk cache be for keeping the build directories
with all the intermediate files?

Cache size for build directory (in MB)? [10]

By default, each time the CPAN module is started, cache scanning
is performed to keep the cache size in sync. To prevent from this,
disable the cache scanning with 'never'.

Perform cache scanning (atstart or never)? [atstart]

To considerably speed up the initial CPAN shell startup, it is
possible to use Storable to create a cache of metadata. If Storable
is not available, the normal index mechanism will be used.

Cache metadata (yes/no)? [yes]

The next option deals with the charset your terminal supports. In
general CPAN is English speaking territory, thus the charset does not
matter much, but some of the aliens out there who upload their
software to CPAN bear names that are outside the ASCII range. If your
terminal supports UTF-8, you say no to the next question, if it
supports ISO-8859-1 (also known as LATIN1) then you say yes, and if it
supports neither nor, your answer does not matter, you will not be
able to read the names of some authors anyway. If you answer no, names
will be output in UTF-8.

Your terminal expects ISO-8859-1 (yes/no)? [yes]

The CPAN module can detect when a module that which you are trying to
build depends on prerequisites. If this happens, it can build the
prerequisites for you automatically ('follow'), ask you for
confirmation ('ask'), or just ignore them ('ignore'). Please set your
policy to one of the three values.

Policy on building prerequisites (follow, ask or ignore)? [ask]

The CPAN module will need a few external programs to work properly.
Please correct me, if I guess the wrong path for a program. Don't
panic if you do not have some of them, just press ENTER for those. To
disable the use of a download program, you can type a space followed
by ENTER.

Where is your gzip program? [/bin/gzip]
Where is your tar program? [/bin/tar]
Where is your unzip program? [/usr/bin/unzip]
Where is your make program? [/usr/bin/make]
Warning: lynx not found in PATH
Where is your lynx program? []
Where is your wget program? [/usr/bin/wget]
Warning: ncftpget not found in PATH
Where is your ncftpget program? []
Warning: ncftp not found in PATH
Where is your ncftp program? []
Where is your ftp program? [/usr/bin/ftp]
What is your favorite pager program? [/usr/bin/less]
What is your favorite shell? [/bin/bash]


Every Makefile.PL is run by perl in a separate process. Likewise we
run 'make' and 'make install' in processes. If you have any
parameters (e.g. PREFIX, LIB, UNINST or the like) you want to pass
to the calls, please specify them here.

If you don't understand this question, just press ENTER.

Parameters for the 'perl Makefile.PL' command?
Typical frequently used settings:

POLLUTE=1 increasing backwards compatibility
LIB=~/perl non-root users (please see manual for more hints)

Your choice: []
Parameters for the 'make' command?
Typical frequently used setting:

-j3 dual processor system

Your choice: []
Parameters for the 'make install' command?
Typical frequently used setting:

UNINST=1 to always uninstall potentially conflicting files

Your choice: []


Sometimes you may wish to leave the processes run by CPAN alone
without caring about them. As sometimes the Makefile.PL contains
question you're expected to answer, you can set a timer that will
kill a 'perl Makefile.PL' process after the specified time in seconds.

If you set this value to 0, these processes will wait forever. This is
the default and recommended setting.

Timeout for inactivity during Makefile.PL? [0]


If you're accessing the net via proxies, you can specify them in the
CPAN configuration or via environment variables. The variable in
the $CPAN::Config takes precedence.

Your ftp_proxy?
Your http_proxy?
Your no_proxy?
You have no /root/.cpan/sources/MIRRORED.BY
I'm trying to fetch one
LWP not available

Please, install Net::FTP as soon as possible. CPAN.pm installs it for you
if you just type
install Bundle::libnet


Trying with "/usr/bin/wget -O -" to get
ftp://ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/MIRRORED.BY
--18:17:03-- ftp://ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/MIRRORED.BY
=> `-'
ftp.perl.org をDNSに問いあわせています... 完了しました。
ftp.perl.org[142.132.1.82]:21 に接続しています... 接続しました。
anonymous としてログインしています... ログインしました!
==> SYST ... 完了しました。 ==> PWD ... 完了しました。
==> TYPE I ... 完了しました。 ==> CWD /pub/CPAN ... 完了しました。
==> PORT ... 完了しました。 ==> RETR MIRRORED.BY ... 完了しました。
長さ: 114,878 (確証はありません)

18:17:36 (5.41 KB/s) - `-' を保存しました [114878]



Now we need to know where your favorite CPAN sites are located. Push
a few sites onto the array (just in case the first on the array won't
work). If you are mirroring CPAN to your local workstation, specify a
file: URL.

First, pick a nearby continent and country (you can pick several of
each, separated by spaces, or none if you just want to keep your
existing selections). Then, you will be presented with a list of URLs
of CPAN mirrors in the countries you selected, along with previously
selected URLs. Select some of those URLs, or just keep the old list.
Finally, you will be prompted for any extra URLs -- file:, ftp:, or
http: -- that host a CPAN mirror.

(1) Africa
(2) Asia
(3) Central America
(4) Europe
(5) North America
(6) Oceania
(7) South America
Select your continent (or several nearby continents) []


(1) China
(2) India
(3) Indonesia
(4) Israel
(5) Japan
(6) Korea
(7) Russian Federation
(8) Saudi Arabia
(9) South Korea
(10) Taiwan
(11) Thailand
Select your country (or several nearby countries) []

(1) ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
(2) ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
(3) ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
(4) ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
(5) ftp://ftp.meisei-u.ac.jp/pub/CPAN/
(6) ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
(7) ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
(8) ftp://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
Select as many URLs as you like,
put them on one line, separated by blanks []

Enter another URL or RETURN to quit: []

WAIT support is available as a Plugin. You need the CPAN::WAIT module
to actually use it. But we need to know your favorite WAIT server. If
you don't know a WAIT server near you, just press ENTER.

Your favorite WAIT server?
[wait://ls6.informatik.uni-dortmund.de:1404]


commit: wrote /usr/lib/perl5/5.6.1/CPAN/Config.pm

cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.59_54)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan>

perl モジュールのインストール

cpan> install [モジュール名]

でインストールが出来ます。ここで何が行われるの?

  • モジュール本体のダウンロード
  • 解凍
  • perl Makefile.PL
  • make
  • make install

を半自動的に行ってくれます。(何かオプションの指定が必要なときには対話形式でインストールを行います。)又、他のモジュールに依存している場合には必要なものも全て面倒見てくれるので初心者?の方でも簡単にperlモジュールのインストールが可能になります。

perlモジュールインストール例 Net::Telnet モジュール(Net-Telnet-3.02.tar.gz) をインストールする

$ su $ Password: # perl -MCPAN -e shell 
cpan> install Net::Telnet

たったこれだけでパッケージのダウンロードからインストールまでを自動的に行ってくれます。 CPAN の詳細はコンソールから perldoc CPAN でご覧下さい。 CPAN のモードから出るには単に quit として下さい。 ものぐさな方は

# perl -MCPAN -e 'CPAN::Shell->install("Net::Telnet")'

でもインストール可能です。

一般ユーザでcpanを使う

レンタルサーバーなどで root が使えない場合でもそのサーバー環境によっては root 以外の user 権限で cpan を利用する事ができる場合があります。まずホームディレクトリに Perl モジュールをインストールするためのディレクトリを作成します。

cpan起動

%perl -MCPAN -e shell

作ったディレクトリに perl モジュールがインストールできるようにするためにコマンドを入力します。

cpan> o conf makepl_arg "LIB=~/perl/lib PREFIX=~/perl/lib INSTALLMAN1DIR=~/perl/man/man1 INSTALLMAN3DIR=~/perl/man/man3"

そして上記の設定を今後も有効にするために以下のコマンドを入力します。

cpan> o conf commit

このエントリーをはてなブックマークに追加

トップ  »  perl  »  CPAN を使い Perl モジュールをインストールする

トラックバック(0)

トラックバックURL: http://www.omakase.org/mt/mt-tb.cgi/1

コメントする

カテゴリperlの記事一覧